Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of disease and human mortality, causing infections such as tetanus, typhoid, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, food borne illnesses, leprosy and tuberculosis. There are cases where the etiology or cause of a known disease is discovered only after many years, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer. Bacterial diseases are also significant in agriculture and livestock, where there are many diseases such as leaf spot, the plague of fire, paratuberculosis, the bacteria panicle blight, mastitis, salmonella and anthrax. Each pathogen species has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human hosts. Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response producing shock, massive vasodilation and death. However, these organisms are also part of normal human flora and are usually found on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease. Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans. For example, the genus Rickettsia, which are obligate intracellular parasites can only grow and reproduce within the cells of other organisms. A species of Rickettsia causes typhus, while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydiae, another type of intracellular obligate parasite, contains species that cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections and may be involved in coronary heart disease. Finally, some species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis.
This project has determined the action spectrum of SANIERS prototypes designed to disinfect babies bottles submerged in water using ozonation. According to the aim of the SAINIERS prototype, bacterial strains that may produce gastrointestinal illnesses and health problems via the oral route have been included in the spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The SAINIERS prototype for ozonation was highly effective at disinfecting contaminated water with various bacterial species in suspension. A single cycle of 10 minutes ozonation was enough to reduce 5-6 logarithms of bacterial load, which is above even the requirements established by the AFNOR agency for antiseptic and disinfectant activity (AFNOR, Antiseptiques et désinfectants: Normes et réglementation). Similarly, the ozonator’s action was effective against fungi and yeast, viral particles, even against Geobacillus stearothermophillus spores. In the latter case, it was necessary to apply two ozonization cycles of 10 minutes to achieve disinfection. Below are the results obtained. The tables reflect the bacteria counts obtained before and after ozonation in three independent experiments.
Bacilo Gram negativo
This is an enterobacteria usually found in animal intestines, and therefore in sewage, but it can be found everywhere, as it is a ubiquitous organism. Escherichia coli, in its natural habitat, lives in the intestines of most healthy mammals. It is the main facultative anaerobic facultative organism of the digestive system. In healthy individuals, ie if the bacteria does not acquire genetic elements that encode virulence factors, the bacteria acts as a feeder forming part of the intestinal flora and thus helping in the absorption of nutrients. In humans, Escherichia coli colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn adhering to the mucus of the intestine within 48 hours after the first meal.
Escherichia coli can cause intestinal and extra-intestinal infections which are generally serious, such as the excretory tract infections, cystitis, meningitis, peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and Gram-negative pneumonia. Escherichia coli are divided by their virulent properties, which can cause diarrhea in humans and other animals. Other strains cause bloody diarrhea due to their aggressiveness, pathogenicity and toxicity. In many countries, there have been cases of death from these bacteria. This usually happens to children between 1 and 8 years old. It is usually caused by the contamination of food and poor subsequent cooking of it, namely at internal and external temperatures under 70 ° C.
Bacilo Gram negativo
They are Gram negative bacillus, facultative anaerobes of the Enterobacteriaceae family. They are mainly related to the intestinal flora and therefore water and food that has been in contact with fecal material. They produce large quantities of gas during the fermentation of sugars, and perform a mixed acid fermentation, producing large amounts of acids and gases. The main reservoir of Salmonella is the intestinal tract of domestic and wild birds. Its pathogenesis begins with ingestion of the inoculum, which may vary from 103 to 106 cells. If the inoculum is large enough, it will exceed the gastric barrier posed by the acid pH. The pathogen manages to cross the intestinal barrier and is phagocytosed at Peyer's patch level. Protection against polymorphonuclears, the complementary system and immunoglobulin allow it to spread lymphatically and colonize the territories of the reticuloendothelial system. It will then begin to multiply and increase in number, in the end producing necrosis of the Peyer's patches. The term "Salmonella" includes various clinical pictures: "typhoid fever", produced by S. typhi or S. paratyphi (salmonella typhus), and "non-typhoid salmonellosis," produced by other subspecies (non-typhoidal salmonella). We should mention that, while in America "typhus" is the disease caused by Rickettsia prowazecki in Spain "typhus" can also refer to typhoid fever caused by Salmonella.
Bacilo Gram negativo
Klebsiella is a genus of immobile Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobes which have a prominent polysaccharide capsule. It is a frequent human pathogen. Klebsiella bacterial organisms can lead to a range of infectious conditions, notably pneumonia. Among them we should highlight the following: Klebsiella pneumonia: urinary tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections. Klebsiella ozaenae: atrophic rhinitis. Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis: respiratory infections, causing rhinoescleroma or scleroma. Klebsiella species are nitrogen fixers and ubiquitous in nature.
Bacilo Gram negativo
LThe Yersinia enterocolitica is a representative of enterobacteriaceae. It is a gram negative, non-spore-forming bacillus, able to grow within a wide temperature range, from -1 ° C to +40 ° C. It presents anti-fagocitary factors (capsule). It multiplies in the mucous membranes and can be transmitted through contact with animals or ingestion of contaminated food or water Virulence: pathogenic strains: they secrete a heat-resistant enterotoxin and invade the small intestine.
Bacilo Gram negativo
Vibrio is a genus of Gram negative bacteria belonging to the order of Vibrionales, a gamma-proteobacteria, with a curved bacilli shape. Biochemically they are characterized by testing positive for catalase and oxydase, also negative to the adenine dihydrolase, and positive in ornithine decarboxylase. Vibrio cholerae is specifically sucrose and positive mannitol and reductase nitrate. Is a facultative anaerobic bacteria and has a fermentative metabolism; glucose, can ferment, among other substrates. They have polar flagellation, which gives them maximum mobility. Although nutritionally they are not very demanding, specific means are employed to isolate them in clinical samples. Sodium stimulates their growth and they also tolerate alkaline pH, so this is why alkaline peptone water is used for their cultivation. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with Vibrio cholera bacteria. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days, and the bacteria produces an enterotoxin that causes copious diarrhea, that is painless and watery and which can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated promptly. The majority of patients also suffer from vomiting.
Known as Staphylococcus aureus, or commonly as MRSA it is a facultative anaerobic, gram-positive, coagulase production, catalase, stationary and non spore bacteria that is widely distributed throughout the world, with an estimated one in three people being colonized, although not infected by it. It can produce a wide range of diseases, ranging from skin and mucus infections which are relatively benign, such as folliculitis, furunculosis or conjunctivitis, to life-threatening diseases such as cellulitis, deep abscesses, osteomyelitis, meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, it may also affect the gastrointestinal apparatus, either by physical presence of Staphylococcus aureus or by ingesting staphylococcal enterotoxin secreted by the bacteria. At present, this organism is found as the main cause of nosocomial infections. This is favored by the fact that this species is found in both the skin and mucous membranes of humans, allowing it to penetrate from surgical wounds into the patient's bloodstream through direct or indirect contact with medical staff, through a contaminated object or another patient.
Example of bactericidal activity from the SANIERS ozonizer equipment:
Petri plates, in which the membranes are incubated, from the filtration 100 ml of water contaminated with the bacterium S. aureus before and after 10 minutes of ozonation treatment.
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive feeder that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other mammals. Like other spp. Enterococcus genus, E. faecalis can cause serious infections in humans, especially in a hospital environment. The presence of enterococci is enhanced because it has had the ability to become resistant to virtually all antibiotics in use. The normal habitat of these is the gut of warm-blooded animals. They are indicators of fecal contamination, so its presence in food or indicate poor hygiene or faulty storage conditions, except in food where it acts as natural bacterial flora in fermentation processes, such as cheese, raw meats and even meat products. They are highly resistant to adverse conditions (freezing, drying, heat treatment, etc.) so they are good indicators to assess the hygienic conditions and conservation of frozen and dried foods.
Bacilo Gram positivo
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that develops intra-cellularly and is the cause of listeriosis. It is one of the pathogens causing the most virulent food-borne infections, with a mortality rate of between 20 to 30%, higher than almost all other food-toxic infections. L. monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can grow in macrophages, epithelial cells and fibroblasts in culture. After being ingested in contaminated food, L. monocytogenes can survive exposure to proteolytic enzymes, gastric acid and bile salts. It mainly contains a protein called internalin which interacts with the receptor of the host cells for cell adhesion, this is called E-cadherin which induces phagocytosis, these being specific for each tissue. The presence of internalins facilitates the micoorganism’s entry into cells. The body reacts by creating a sort of phagosome to encapsulate the bacteria but this produces listeriolysin O and phospholipase C that allow it to destroy the phagosome hydrolyzing their membrane lipids. This listeriolysin is encoded by the hly gene. As it is within the cytosol, L. monocytogenes uses a surface protein called Act A which generates intracellular polymerization of actin.2. These filaments are rearranged into a long tail extending from one end of the bacteria. Due to the movements of the microorganism’s tail, it migrates into the cytoplasm of the host cell membrane. Protrusions (phyllopods) are formed in the periphery which can penetrate the adjacent cells and allow the entry of the bacteria. This explains the need for cell-mediated immunity. Since microorganisms are never extracellular host humeral antibodies would not be effective.